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Undisclosed Relevant AIDS FACTSacquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, needle exchange,  human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Drug czar, Public Health Association, APHA, drug use, NEP, Needle stick, syringe, fraud, AIDS funding, embezzling

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needle exchange

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the leading cause of death between 25 and 44 year olds The great majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections today are among injection drug user's (IUD), their partners and their children (6 )

"the logic is seductive....," but "I am not prepared to see unreliable, unproven, piecemeal drain monies away moneys away from drug treatment... the real success stories are stories of entry into drug treatment. Needle exchange is neither adequate substitute for drug treatment, nor a preferred means of entry into drug treatment" "federal policy does not hinder state or local entities form using their financial resources to Provide." needle exchanges, statement on Dec 6 1995 Lee Brown Drug czar under Clinton (7 ).

At the 1994 Public Health Association (APHA) conference Dr Don Jarlais presented and estimated of an approximate 50% reduction in rates of new HIV infections No evidence of an increase in drug use in San Francisco, a city with a high volume NEP(8 ).

The California Study.  Entailed review of 2000 documents, visits to 23 programs in 15 cities in 4 countries it found.
1. Biologic plausibility, removing potentially infected syringes from circulation and replacing them with clean ones.
2. Behavioral data: 10/14 studies showed a decrease in HIV risks behavior (the sharing of syringes) and none showed increase.
3. three to four fold decrease in new hepatitis B infections [ with later data this increased to eight-fold for hepatitis B and C infections]
4. Mathematical models from New Haven (33% decrease in new HIV infections ) and by the UC study
Although self reported syringe ownership increased, the percentage of IUD reporting they carried syringes with them after the new law did not increase significantly (9 ).

In 2008 it was reported that at least $14 million will be saved in Canada health care cost and over 1,000 HIV infections will be prevent because of Vancouver's safe-injection site (10 ).

The Vancouver safe injection facility open in 2003 research showed it reduced public drug use, publicly discarded needles and sharing of needles. A study of a heroin prescription facility in Montreal had similar results. Both did not sow an increase in drug trafficking or other drug-related crimes in the area of the facilities (11 ).

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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, needle exchange,  human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Drug czar, Public Health Association, APHA, drug use, NEP, Needle stick, syringe, fraud, AIDS funding, embezzling