conflict diamonds or blood diamonds
Canadian blood diamonds expert Ian Smillie testified in the war crimes trial of former Liberian president Charles Taylor. The crimes committed the name of blood diamonds kidnapping and enslavement by Revolutionary United Front(RUF). these slaves helped dig up $60 million and $125 million each year worth of Diamonds a year (10 ).
It is noted that "Even in the aftermath of the Kimberly Process, diamonds still are funded by exploitative labor," as noted by Matthew Wells a student in Harvard University's law school human rights program (11 ).
Marc Choyt who publishes the watch blog www.fairjewelry.org and is the president of Reflective Images, said abour the Kimberly process, "It's a regulatory process. It doesn't have any sort of 'teeth' in regards to human rights or labor," (12 ).
A survey of 37 jewelry Merchants that were listed as $100 million super sellers in National Jeweler magazine, and conducted between December 2006 and February 2007. Half of these leading American jewelry retailers failed to respond to the requests to provide information about their policies on blood diamonds. Fifty six percent of those who did respond reported having no auditing procedures in place to combat blood diamonds, despite the recommendation to do so by the trade association Jewelers of America. Fifty seven percent of the top jewelers do not have any public information posted on their websites about their policies on blood diamonds. The survey said several industry leaders Helzberg Diamond Shops, Sterling (Signet) and Tiffany & Co have taken stronger measures to fight blood diamonds including third party auditing (13 ).
One of the people who helped create the Kimberley Process Ian Smillie, is worried the process with will become irrelevant. Ian noted "It isn't regulating the rough diamond trade," and "It is in danger of becoming irrelevant and it's letting all manner of crooks off the hook."(14 ).
In 2009 it was noted that the Kimberley Process was not stopping the flow of blood diamonds from Zimbabwe (15 ).
A September 2009 report by Kimberley investigators alleged that Zimbabwe's army operated organizations that smuggled Diamonds from the Marange diamond field in eastern Zimbabwe into Mozambique. Zimbabwe is not accused of producing blood Diamonds per se but operating smuggling operating that "makes possible the introduction of conflict diamonds,". (16 ).
Other commodities involved with human rights violations and conflict
Other commodities have been used to spur conflict. 150,000 barrels of stolen crude oil is smuggled out of Nigeria daily. This promoted president UMYA to say "I appeal to you and through you to all other G-8 leaders to support my new proposal which I will also discuss with UN Secretary General at my meeting with him, that stolen crude should be treated like stolen diamonds because they both generate blood money. Like what is now known as "blood diamond", stolen crude also aids corruption and violence and can provoke war,"(17 ).
A metal called Coltan, a rare medical that is used in cell, dvd players, computers and other products has also be tied to prolonging war, violence and conflict. (18 ).
It is believed that emeralds are now tied to warfare and conflict. The "blood emeralds" come from the Swat, a mountain valley in Pakistan. They are used by the Taleban to develop Pakistan's Nuclear weapons program (19 ).
Charcoal has even been tied to conflict it comes from Congo's North Kivu Province a Province controlled by rebels and much the Charcoal is made from trees in the Congo's Virunga National Park (20 ).