Gulf War fallout
With oil for food rations of wheat flour, rice, cooking oil, sugar and lentils, the daily per capita intake of calories, went from 1,300 to 2,000 calories (6 ).
The first food shipment under UN resolution arrived in March 1997. Three quarters of the 800,000 tons of food was delivered. The first medical supplies had arrived in May 1997. Fatalities of children under five had increased three fold since 1991. A Unicef Survey in 1994 showed that 68 percent of children went to school without breakfast. In 1997 32 percent were malnourished,"(7 ).
The Oil for Food Program (OFFP)ran into allegations of corruption. Investigations into matter ensued and found "Iraq engaged in trade illicitly, mostly through smuggling which was unrelated to the Oil for Food Program, and to a lesser extent through kickbacks and surcharges on contracts within the OFF program. All estimated that two-thirds or more of the illicit funds involved smuggling, unrelated to OFFP.". the total cost of the OFFP was 1.8 billion (8 ).
A report listed 2,200 companies and some 40 countries that conspired with Saddam to bilk the humanitarian program out of money (9 ).
On May 22 2003 the UN Security Council voted 14-0 to lift economic sanctions against Iraq. Center for Economic and Social Rights ("CESR") calculated 567,000 children died because if these sanctions. A report alleges that from 1990 to 1997 the UN Sanctions "often cause[d] significant disruption in the distribution of food, pharmaceuticals and sanitation supplies, jeopardize[d] the quality of food and the availability of clean drinking water, severely interfere[d] with the functioning of basic health and education systems, and undermine[d] the right to work." Iraq's literacy rate fell from 89 percent in 1987 to 57 percent in 1997. Iraq's human development index that measures adult literacy rate, life expectancy, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) it fell from 55th place in 1990, to 106th in 1995, and to 125th in 1999(10 ).
In response to the UN oil for food program in 2006 the UN started the Procurement Task Force. They uncovered 20 major schemes affecting more than 1 billion dollars, and averaged 150 cases a year. However the task force as of 2010 it hasn't seen a significant corruption case complete in the past year, and it did not pursue 95 cases and 80 cases remain unsolved (11 ).