American Slave holders
Even though the number of slaves in north States declined after the revolutionary war the move to outlaw slavery and free the slaves move fairly slowly. Only in Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire were the slaves emancipated relatively swiftly. But these laws were vague and enforcement was inconsistent. Between 1777 and 1804 states north of Maryland took steps that would eventually end slavery within their borders. The states of In Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island adopted laws that dismantled slavery over fifty years (1 ).
Southern American slaveholders made up six percent of the white population and two percent of the free black population. How many free blacks exploited their slaves? The best guess is between 19 and 27 percent though some argue the number is higher(2 ).
In the south in 1840 Freemen (Free blacks) made up 8% of the black population (3 ).