War in Cyberspace, a look at tactics and "threats"
In 1998 Spanish protestors email bombed the Institute for Global Communications (IGC) with thousands of bogus email messages. The ISP email was tied up and unable to deliver emails to its users. Support lines were clogged. They clogged their web site with fake credit card orders. The protestors demanded they stop hosting the site Euskal Herria Journal a New York publication that supported Basque independence. The IGC finally pulled the site because of the email bombings (33 ).
In 1999 during the Kosovo conflict, NATO computers were hit with email bombs and denial-of-service attacks by hacktivists protesting the NATO bombings (34 ).
When a US Surveillance plane had a mid air collisions with a Chinese fighter plane on April 2001 it triggered mutual cyber attacks surrounding the political dispute between the two countries (35 ).
In 2002 several USA servers were hit with DDoS (distributed denial-of-service attack) attacks that appeared to come from South Korea. The cause for this could have been after Apolo Ohno won the gold medal in 1,500 meter speed skating race and was disqualified(36 ).
During the Pakistan-India conflict Indian internet sites where defaced. The sites include involved in information dissemination. Examples include an Indian government site, television network, newspaper, science agency and an atomic research facility. In a later incident a hacker downloaded possibly sensitive nuclear research information. One pro-Pakistan hacker group has targeted US sites and defaced sites belonging to the Department of Energy and US Air Force (37 ).
In India the Easter Railway website was hacked the text on it said "Cyber war has been declared on Indian cyberspace by Whackerz-Pakistan". It is believe that this is in relation for India violating Pakistan air space (38 ).
The Israel-Palestinian Conflict, Palestinian cyber attackers did significant defacements, engineered a distributed denial-of-service attack, system penetration that used worms and Trojan horses. They also retaliated against pro Israeli hackers taking down sites that belong to the Israeli government and financial organization (39).